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Stereotactic radiosurgery - CyberKnife

Definition

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-power energy on a small area of the body. Despite its name, radiosurgery is a treatment, not a surgical procedure. Incisions (cuts) are not made on your body.

More than one type of machine and system can be used to perform radiosurgery. This article is about radiosurgery using the system called CyberKnife.

Alternative Names

Stereotactic radiotherapy; SRT; Stereotactic body radiotherapy; SBRT; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy; SRS; CyberKnife; CyberKnife radiosurgery; Non-invasive neurosurgery; Brain tumor - CyberKnife; Brain cancer - CyberKnife; Brain metastases - CyberKnife; Parkinson - CyberKnife; Epilepsy - CyberKnife; Tremor - CyberKnife

Description

SRS targets and treats an abnormal area. The radiation is tightly focused, which minimizes damage to nearby healthy tissue.

During treatment:

Each treatment takes about 30 minutes to 2 hours. You may receive more than one treatment session, but usually no more than five sessions.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

SRS is more likely to be recommended for people who are too high risk for conventional surgery. This may be due to age or other health problems. SRS may be recommended because the area to be treated is too close to vital structures inside the body.

CyberKnife is often used to slow the growth of or completely destroy small, deep brain tumors that are hard to remove during conventional surgery.

Tumors of the brain and nervous system that can be treated using CyberKnife include:

Other cancers that can be treated include:

Other medical problems treated with CyberKnife are:

Risks

SRS may damage tissue around the area being treated. As compared to other types of radiation therapy, CyberKnife treatment is much less likely to damage nearby healthy tissue.

Brain swelling may occur in people who receive treatment to the brain. Swelling usually goes away without treatment. But some people may need medicines to control this swelling. In rare cases, surgery with incisions (open surgery) is needed to treat the brain swelling caused by the radiation.

Before the Procedure

Before the treatment, you will have MRI or CT scans. These images help your doctor determine the specific treatment area.

The day before your procedure:

The day of your procedure:

After the Procedure

Often, you can go home about 1 hour after the treatment. Arrange ahead of time for someone to drive you home. You can go back to your regular activities the next day if there are no complications, such as swelling. If you have complications, you may need to stay in the hospital overnight for monitoring.

Follow instructions for how to care for yourself at home.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The effects of CyberKnife treatment may take weeks or months to be seen. Prognosis depends on the condition being treated. Your provider will likely monitor your progress using imaging tests such as MRI and CT scans.

References

Accuray Incorporated website. CyberKnife Accuray general information, treatment overview. cyberknife.com/cyberknife-how-it-works. Accessed June 1, 2018.

Linskey ME, Kuo JV. General and historical considerations of radiotherapy and radiosurgery. In: Winn HR, ed. Youmans and Winn Neurological Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 261.

Welling DB, Spear SA, Packer MD. Stereotactic radiation treatment of benign tumors of the cranial base. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 179.


Review Date: 5/18/2018
Reviewed By: David Herold, MD, radiation oncologist in West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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